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Friday, November 30, 2012

Selected military, governmental, and similar documents

Publications by members of ICRAC
Altmann, J. (2001). Military Uses of Microsystem Technologies – Dangers and Preventive Arms Control, Münster: agenda.
Altmann, J. (2006). Military Nanotechnology: Potential Applications and Preventive Arms Control, Abingdon/New York: Routledge.
Altmann, J. (2009). Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles, in Capurro/Nagenborg 2009. PDF

Asaro, P. (2008). How Just Could a Robot War Be?, in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (Eds), Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy, Amsterdam: IOS, pp. 50-64, PDF
Asaro, P. (2009). Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation, IEEE Technology & Society, 28 (1), 20-24. PDF (paywall)

Sauer, F./Schörnig, N. (2012): Killer Drones – The Silver Bullet of Democratic Warfare? Security Dialogue 43:4, 363-380. PDF (paywall).

Sharkey, N. (2007). Automated Killers and the Computing Profession. Computer, 40 (11), 122-124. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N. (2008). Cassandra or False Prophet of Doom: AI Robots and War. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23 (4), 14-17. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N. (2008). Grounds for Discrimination: Autonomous Robot Weapons. RUSI Defence Systems, 11 (2), 86-89. PDF
Sharkey, N. (2008). The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics. Science, 32 (5909), 1800-1801.
Sharkey, N. (2009). Death Strikes from the Sky: The calculus of proportionality, IEEE Technology and Society,28, 16-19. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N. (2009). Weapons of indiscriminate lethality, FIfF Kommunikation, 1/09, 26-28. PDF
Sharkey, N. (2009). A matter of precision, Defence Management Journal, December, 74-76.
Sharkey, N. (2010) Saying “No!” to Lethal Autonomous Targeting, Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 299-313. PDF (paywall)
Sharkey, N (2011) Processus décisionnels : vers des réponses automatisées aux questions de vie ou de mort, In Ronan Doare and Henri Hude (ed) Les Robots Au Coeur Du Champ De Bataille, 49-67
Sharkey, N. (2011) The automation and proliferation of military drones and the protection of civilians, Journal of Law, Innovation and Technology, 3(2) 229–240
Sharkey, N. (2012) Automating Warfare: lessons learned from the drones, Journal of Law, Information & Science, 21(2)
Sharkey, N. (2012). Killing made easy: from joystics to politics, in Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, eds. Patrick Lin, George Bekey, and Keith Abney, Cambridge: MIT Press.

Sparrow, R. (2007). Killer Robots, Journal of Applied Philosophy, 24 (1): 62-77. PDF
Sparrow, R. (2009). Predators or Plowshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons, IEEE Technology and Society, 28 (1): 25-29. PDF
Sparrow, R. (2009). Building a Better WarBot: Ethical issues in the design of unmanned systems for military applications, Science and Engineering Ethics, 15 (2), 169–187. PDF (paywall)

Other References — Monographs and edited volumes

Arkin, R.C. (2009). Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots, Boca Raton FL: Chapman&Hall/CRC.
Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M. (Eds) (2009). Ethics and Robotics, Heidelberg: AKA/IOS.
Dabringer, Gerhard (Ed.) (2011:). Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems – Interviews, Institut für Religion und Frieden, Ethica Themen, Wien. PDF
Krishnan, A. (2009). Killer Robots – Legality and Ethicality of Autonomous Weapons, Farnham
Surrey/Burlington VT: Ashgate.
Lin, Patrick/Abney, Keith/Bekey, George (Eds.) (2012). Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Moravec, H. (1998). Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Singer, P. (2009). Wired For War – The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century, New York: Penguin.
Wallach, W./Allen, C. (2009). Moral Machines – Teaching Robots Right from Wrong, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weber, J. (2009). Robotic Warfare, Human Rights and the Rhetoric of Ethical Machines, in Capurro/Nagenborg.

Other References – Miscellaneous
Arkin, R.C. (2007). Governing Lethal Behavior: Embedding Ethics in a Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Robot Architecture, Technical Report GIT-GVU-07-11, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology. PDF
Barry, C.L., Zimet, E. (2001). UCAVs – Technological, Policy, and Operational Challenges, Defense Horizons, no. 3. PDF
Bundesregierung (2009). Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage, Einführung und Bedeutung unbemannter militärischer Fahrzeuge und Luftfahrzeuge, Drucksache 16/12481, Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag. PDF
Canning, J.S. (2005). A Definitive Work on Factors Impacting the Arming of Unmanned Vehicles, NSWCDD/TR-05/36, Dahlgren VA: Naval Surface Warfare Center. PDF
Finn, A. (2008). Legal considerations for the weaponisation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles, International Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems, 1 (1), 43-74. PDF (paywall)
Fleming, N. (2009). Campaign asks for international treaty to limit war robots, New Scientist Tech, 30 Sept.
Gulam, H., Lee, S.W. (2006). Uninhabited combat aerial vehicles and the law of armed conflict, Australian Army Journal, 3 (2), 123–136.
Jane’s (2007). Jane’s Unmanned Vehicles and Aerial Targets, Coulsdon: Jane’s.
Lin, P., Bekey, G., Abney, K. (2008). Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design, San Luis Obispo: California Polytechnic State University, Ethics + Emerging Sciences Group. PDF
Lazarski, A.J. (2002). Legal Implications of the Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle, Aerospace Power Journal, 16 (2), 74-83.
Marks, P. (2006). Armchair warlords and robot hordes, New Scientist, 192 (2575), 24. PDF (paywall)
Mayer, J. (2009). The Predator War – What are the risks of the C.I.A.’s covert drone program?, The New Yorker, October 26, 2009.
Oudes, Cor/Zwijnenburg, Wim (2011). Does Unmanned Make Unacceptable? Exploring the Debate on using Drones and Robots in Warfare, IKV Pax Christi. PDF
Quintana, E. (2008). The Ethics and Legal Implications of Military Unmanned Vehicles, Occasional Paper, London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies/British Computer Society. PDF
Sullivan, J.M. (2006). Evolution or Revolution? The Rise of UAVs, IEEE Technology and Society, 25 (3), 43-49.
Zwanenburg, M., Hosang, H.B., Wijngaards, N. (2005). Humans, Agents and International Humanitarian Law: Dilemmas in Target Discrimination, in Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on the Law of Electronic Agents – LEA, 408-412. PDF

Selected military, governmental, and similar documents
US DoD: Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032 – A key document to grasp the impact of unmanned systems in the US military.
US DoD: Aircraft Procurement Plan – Fiscal Years (FY) 2012-2041 – This document states that the US Department of Defense plans for a slight decrease of the total aviation force until 2021. Yet, the number of “aircraft in the multirole unmanned aircraft system category will more than triple” in the same period (p. 14).
US DARPA: The Vulture Program – This is a call for proposals from DARPA for a battery that will keep a heavier-than-air system with a payload of 1000lbs in the air for 5 years. In connection to this a 2012 Project Accomplishment Summary by the Sandia National Laboratory concluded that a power source has indeed been found but can presently not be used due to constraints by “political realities” (p. 2). It is very probable that SNL was looking into nuclear power sources (most likely a strongly encapsulated heat source such as Pu-238 which is already used in spacecraft) for UAV propulsion in this case.
US DoD: United States Air Force Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047 – This report discusses the progression from “man in the loop” systems to “man on the loop” systems and then to full autonomy.
US DoD: The Navy Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) Master Plan 2004 – A report on UUVs, aptly called a “master plan”
US Naval Studies Board: Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations – This report contains some useful classes of autonomous operation across the different armed forces. It also discusses the benefits of autonomy.
US DoD: Unmanned Systems Safety Guide for DOD Acquisition 2007 – An extensive report on the safety aspects of military unmanned systems.

NMSU announces major UAV project with DARPA, Boeing

NMSU News: NMSU announces contract to flight test Vulture unmanned aerial vehicle

NMSUnews

Uploaded by nmsunews on Mar 26, 2012
New Mexico State University on Sept. 30, 2011, announced that its Physical Science Laboratory is partnering with the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in developing and testing DARPA’s Vulture unmanned aerial vehicle program.
The Vulture II Program, a joint venture between DARPA and Boeing, is centered around a new type of UAV with a 400-foot wingspan, weighing just 5,000 pounds.

NMSU News

Uploaded by nmsunews on Sep 30, 2011. New Mexico State University Physical Science Laboratory was recently awarded a contract from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that includes flight-testing and the determination of airworthiness of the Vulture II Program flight demonstrator air vehicle at NMSU’s Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Test Center, as well as management of the test site facilities and equipment. The objective of the program is to develop and demonstrate the technology to enable an airborne platform to operate uninterrupted for five years for a multi-optional mission, which might include performing intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and communications. According to DARPA, NMSU is the only entity capable of meeting the unique facilities, airspace and technical expertise required to oversee and conduct the flight test, while meeting airspace, available frequency spectrum and takeoff and landing requirements. NMSU faculty, staff, students and the public are invited to attend the Research Rally. There will be time after the presentation for one-on-one interviews with key personnel participating in the Vulture II Program.
September 30, 2011 by Mark Cramer, NMSU News Center
 T. Bear Larson, Vulture flight test director for DARPA, gives a presentation on the Vulture unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program during a research rally at O'Donnell Hall on the New Mexico State University campus. (NMSU photo by Darren Phillips)
T. Bear Larson, Vulture flight test director for DARPA, gives a presentation on the Vulture unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program during a research rally at O'Donnell Hall on the New Mexico State University campus. (NMSU photo by Darren Phillips)
New Mexico State University on Sept. 30 announced that its Physical Science Laboratory is partnering with the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in developing and testing DARPA’s Vulture unmanned aerial vehicle program.
The Vulture II Program, a joint venture between DARPA and Boeing, is centered around a new type of UAV with a 400-foot wingspan, weighing just 5,000 pounds. The objective of the Vulture program is to develop and demonstrate the technology to enable an airborne payload to remain on-station, uninterrupted for more than five years, performing intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and communication missions. A mixture of solar cells and solid oxide fuel cells will power the vehicle. The system has potential in numerous roles: operation as a single platform, as a formation of multiple aircraft, or as a constellation providing infrastructure augmentation or recovery.
“This is really exciting,” said retired Air Force Col. T. Bear Larson, who is NMSU’s point of contact with DARPA. “We think this is a great opportunity for you guys to see some of our technology and maybe help us out in areas that you are strong in. We love the facilities out here. Everything about this is exciting to me. This technology intrigues me.”
The program technology enables a re-taskable, persistent pseudo-satellite capability in an aircraft package. It combines the key benefits of an aircraft – flexibility and responsiveness, sensor resolution, reduced transmit/receive power and affordability – with the benefits of space assets, such as on-station persistence, no logistics tail, energy independence, fleet size and absence of an in-country footprint.
“It’s quite an extraordinary accomplishment that’s going to bring plenty of attention to New Mexico State University and possibly similar agreements in the future,” NMSU President Barbara Couture said. “The initial contract is for about $2.5 million, and we expect, if this is successful, for more contracts to be down the road. This is a truly experimental aircraft. It’s going to be a very exciting, unusual mission here right in our back yard in Las Cruces.”
NMSU’s PSL will be involved in addressing a variety of technology challenges for the massive UAV, including developing energy management and reliability technologies capable of allowing the aircraft to operate continuously for five years. The Vulture program will conduct full-scale technology maturation and demonstration activities to prove out critical technologies. Its intent is to advance technology and break the mindset that aircraft are defined by launch, recovery and maintenance cycles. Program success would allow a continuous operating airborne platform to remain on-station for multiple years and would greatly increase capabilities of the Department of Defense. In addition, NMSU/PSL will apply their airworthiness assessment, risk analysis and excellent safety record with unmanned aircraft in developing a safe operation to minimize impact to other airspace users.
NMSU is the only FAA Authorized Unmanned Aircraft System Flight Test Center in the United States, allowing for UAS operations in the National Airspace System or civilian airspace.
The NMSU/PSL portion of the project will continue through the conclusion of flight testing, which is expected to last into the third quarter of fiscal year 2014. DARPA determined that NMSU/PSL was the only entity capable of meeting the unique facilities, airspace and technical expertise required to oversee and conduct the flight testing of the Vulture while also meeting airspace, available frequency spectrum and takeoff and landing requirements.
“We’re going to have a building ready in early 2013 and start assembling the vehicle out here,” Larson said. “Our intent is to fly sorties of less than three hours to understand the airframe, and then start climbing up in altitude, with the culmination a 30-day flight test to demonstrate it can fly. Then we’ll bring it back down and do a forensic analysis on all the components. We’re really looking forward to this.”
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has given NMSU/PSL permission to build the airport for the Vulture testing on its land at the Jornada Experimental Range, northeast of Las Cruces. The vehicle will require a 3,000-foot diameter circle for level takeoffs. USDA also partners with NMSU/PSL for its UAS program. They use a small UAS for their remote sensing program for ecological applications, including access to airspace, image acquisition, terrain extraction, orthorectification, mosaicking, vegetation classification, geometric and classification accuracies and operational workflows.
Formed though a partnership between the Federal Aviation Administration and NMSU, the UAS Flight Test Center supports the integration of unmanned systems into the National Airspace System and operates the only FAA approved UAS FTC in the U.S. With more than 13 years of experience and expertise in UAS integration, operations and research and development, it collects data during unmanned flights in public, non-restricted airspace to assist the FAA in the development of standards and regulations for UAS operators.
The UAS FTC’s agreement with the FAA allows it to operate flights in more than 15,000 square miles of airspace in southwestern New Mexico. Facilities include a 15,000-square-foot hangar at the Las Cruces International Airport dedicated exclusively to UAS operations, and office facilities and technical support are available on the NMSU campus
 
 
 

US Department of Defense Releases Unmanned Systems Roadmap: 2007-2032

Posted on January 3rd, 2008 in Military

lockheed_protector_usv.jpgThe US Department of Defense (DoD) has released a report detailing the future of robotic military equipment and how the US military should proceed. The 188 page report (pdf) covers the next 25 years of unmanned military systems in the air, and sea, and on land.
“The publication of this most-recent
roadmap will further our strategic planning and our overall objective
of developing, procuring and integrating unmanned systems into the
force structure of the Department of Defense to support our various
military mission capabilities,”
This report is unique in that it address both ground and sea vehicles in addition to the much more "popular" and oft-used arial systems. This reinforces the Department’s position that integration of air, land, and sea systems is a vital part of the future of US military systems.
The report details recomendations made by field commanders and how further AI developments can lead to "thinking" systems.
"The DoD will develop and employ an increasingly sophisticated force of
unmanned systems over the next 25 years (2007 to 2032). This force must
evolve to become seamlessly integrated with manned systems as well as
with other unmanned systems. The Department will pursue greater
autonomy in order to improve the ability of unmanned systems to operate
independently, either individually or collaboratively, to execute
complex missions in a dynamic environment."
Another fascinating aspect of the report is a huge appendix listing all the unmanned systems currently in use by the military. The image to the left is a shot of the Lockheed Martin Protector Unmanned Surface Vehicle.

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